OSHA 1926.1400 – SCOPE
This standard applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction, that can hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to: Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); crawler cranes; floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes; mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes); multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane on a monorail; tower cranes (such as a fixed jib, i.e., “hammerhead boom”), luffing boom and self-erecting); pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry cranes; straddle cranes; sideboom cranes; derricks; and variations of such equipment. However, items listed in paragraph (c) of this section are excluded from the scope of this standard.
Attachments. This standard applies to equipment included in paragraph (a) of this section when used with attachments. Such attachments, whether crane-attached or suspended include, but are not limited to: Hooks, magnets, grapples, clamshell buckets, orange peel buckets, concrete buckets, drag lines, personnel platforms, augers or drills and pile driving equipment.
Exclusions. This subpart does not cover:
Machinery included in paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps.
Power shovels, excavators, wheel loaders, backhoes, loader backhoes, track loaders. This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended loads.
Automotive wreckers and tow trucks when used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles.
Digger derricks when used for augering holes for poles carrying electric or telecommunication lines, placing and removing the poles, and for handling associated materials for installation on, or removal from, the poles, or when used for any other work subject to subpart V of this part. To be eligible for this exclusion, digger-derrick use in work subject to subpart V of this part must comply with all of the provisions of that subpart, and digger-derrick use in construction work for telecommunication service (as defined at Sec. 1910.268(s)(40)) must comply with all of the provisions of Sec. 1910.268.
Machinery originally designed as vehicle-mounted aerial devices (for lifting personnel) and self-propelled elevating work platforms.
Telescopic/hydraulic gantry systems.
Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load.
Mechanic’s truck with a hoisting device when used in activities related to equipment maintenance and repair.
Machinery that hoists by using a come-a-long or chainfall.
Dedicated drilling rigs.
Gin poles when used for the erection of communication towers.
Tree trimming and tree removal work.
Anchor handling or dredge-related operations with a vessel or barge using an affixed A-frame.
Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that deliver material to a construction site when used to transfer materials from the truck crane to the ground, without arranging the materials in a particular sequence for hoisting.
Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that deliver material to a construction site when the crane is used to transfer building supply sheet goods or building supply packaged materials from the truck crane onto a structure, using a fork/cradle at the end of the boom, but only when the truck crane is equipped with a properly functioning automatic overload prevention device. Such sheet goods or packaged materials include, but are not limited to: Sheets of sheet rock, sheets of plywood, bags of cement, sheets or packages of roofing shingles, and rolls of roofing felt.
This exclusion does not apply when:
The articulating/knuckle-boom crane is used to hold, support or stabilize the material to facilitate a construction activity, such as holding material in place while it is attached to the structure;
The material being handled by the articulating/knuckle-boom crane is a prefabricated component. Such prefabricated components include, but are not limited to: Precast concrete members or panels, roof trusses (wooden, cold-formed metal, steel, or other material), prefabricated building sections such as, but not limited to: Floor panels, wall panels, roof panels, roof structures, or similar items;
The material being handled by the crane is a structural steel member (for example, steel joists, beams, columns, steel decking (bundled or unbundled) or a component of a systems-engineered metal building (as defined in 29 CFR 1926 subpart R).
The activity is not specifically excluded under § 1400(c)(17)(i) and (ii).
Flash-butt welding trucks. Flash-butt welding trucks or other roadway maintenance machines not equipped with any hoisting device other than that used to suspend and move a welding device or workhead assembly. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(18), the terms flash-butt welding truck and roadway maintenance machine refer to railroad equipment that meets the definition of “roadway maintenance machine” in 49 CFR 214.7 and is used only for railroad track work.
All sections of this subpart CC apply to the equipment covered by this standard unless specified otherwise.
The duties of controlling entities under this subpart include, but are not limited to, the duties specified in § 1926.1402(c), § 1926.1402(e) and § 1926.1424(b).
Where provisions of this standard direct an operator, crewmember, or other employee to take certain actions, the employer must establish, effectively communicate to the relevant persons, and enforce, work rules to ensure compliance with such provisions.
For work covered by Subpart V of this part, compliance with § 1926.959 is deemed compliance with §§ 1926.1407 through 1926.1411.
Section 1926.1402 does not apply to cranes designed for use on railroad tracks, when used on railroad tracks that are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213, and that comply with applicable Federal Railroad Administration requirements. § § 1926.1402(f).
[75 FR 48136, August 9, 2010; 78 FR 32116, May 29, 2013; 79 FR 20743, Apr. 11, 2014; 85 FR 57122, November 16, 2020]
OSHA 1926.1401 – DEFINITIONS
A/D director (Assembly/Disassembly director) means an individual who meets this subpart’s requirements for an A/D director, irrespective of the person’s formal job title or whether the person is non-management or management personnel.
Articulating crane means a crane whose boom consists of a series of folding, pin connected structural members, typically manipulated to extend or retract by power from hydraulic cylinders.
Assembly/Disassembly means the assembly and/or disassembly of equipment covered under this standard. With regard to tower cranes, “erecting and climbing” replaces the term “assembly,” and “dismantling” replaces the term “disassembly.” Regardless of whether the crane is initially erected to its full height or is climbed in stages, the process of increasing the height of the crane is an erection process.
Assist crane means a crane used to assist in assembling or disassembling a crane.
Attachments means any device that expands the range of tasks that can be done by the equipment. Examples include, but are not limited to: An auger, drill, magnet, pile-driver, and boom-attached personnel platform.
Audible signal means a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds. Examples include, but are not limited to, sounds made by a bell, horn, or whistle.
Blocking (also referred to as “cribbing”) is wood or other material used to support equipment or a component and distribute loads to the ground. It is typically used to support lattice boom sections during assembly/disassembly and under outrigger and stabilizer floats.
Boatswain’s chair means a single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a seat or sling (which may be incorporated into a full body harness) designed to support one employee in a sitting position.
Bogie means “travel bogie,” which is defined below.
Boom (equipment other than tower crane) means an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.
Boom (tower cranes): On tower cranes, if the “boom” (i.e., principal horizontal structure) is fixed, it is referred to as a jib; if it is moveable up and down, it is referred to as a boom.
Boom angle indicator means a device which measures the angle of the boom relative to horizontal.
Boom hoist limiting device includes boom hoist disengaging device, boom hoist shut-off, boom hoist disconnect, boom hoist hydraulic relief, boom hoist kick-outs, automatic boom stop device, or derricking limiter. This type of device disengages boom hoist power when the boom reaches a predetermined operating angle. It also sets brakes or closes valves to prevent the boom from lowering after power is disengaged.
Boom length indicator indicates the length of the permanent part of the boom (such as ruled markings on the boom) or, as in some computerized systems, the length of the boom with extensions/attachments.
Boom stop includes boom stops, (belly straps with struts/standoff), telescoping boom stops, attachment boom stops, and backstops. These devices restrict the boom from moving above a certain maximum angle and toppling over backward.
Boom suspension system means a system of pendants, running ropes, sheaves, and other hardware which supports the boom tip and controls the boom angle.
Builder means the builder/constructor of equipment.
Center of gravity: The center of gravity of any object is the point in the object around which its weight is evenly distributed. If you could put a support under that point, you could balance the object on the support.
Certified welder means a welder who meets nationally recognized certification requirements applicable to the task being performed.
Climbing means the process in which a tower crane is raised to a new working height, either by adding additional tower sections to the top of the crane (top climbing), or by a system in which the entire crane is raised inside the structure (inside climbing).
Come-a-long means a mechanical device typically consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end that is used to facilitate movement of materials through leverage.
Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
Controlled load lowering means lowering a load by means of a mechanical hoist drum device that allows a hoisted load to be lowered with maximum control using the gear train or hydraulic components of the hoist mechanism. Controlled load lowering requires the use of the hoist drive motor, rather than the load hoist brake, to lower the load.
Controlling entity means an employer that is a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project–its planning, quality and completion.
Counterweight means a weight used to supplement the weight of equipment in providing stability for lifting loads by counterbalancing those loads.
Crane/derrick includes all equipment covered by this subpart.
Crawler crane means equipment that has a type of base mounting which incorporates a continuous belt of sprocket driven track.
Crossover points means locations on a wire rope which is spooled on a drum where one layer of rope climbs up on and crosses over the previous layer. This takes place at each flange of the drum as the rope is spooled onto the drum, reaches the flange, and begins to wrap back in the opposite direction.
Dedicated channel means a line of communication assigned by the employer who controls the communication system to only one signal person and crane/derrick or to a coordinated group of cranes/derricks/signal person(s).
Dedicated pile-driver is a machine that is designed to function exclusively as a pile-driver. These machines typically have the ability to both hoist the material that will be pile-driven and to pile-drive that material.
Dedicated spotter (power lines): To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of § 1926.1428 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.
Directly under the load means a part or all of an employee is directly beneath the load.
Dismantling includes partial dismantling (such as dismantling to shorten a boom or substitute a different component).
Drum rotation indicator means a device on a crane or hoist which indicates in which direction and at what relative speed a particular hoist drum is turning.
Electrical contact occurs when a person, object, or equipment makes contact or comes in close proximity with an energized conductor or equipment that allows the passage of current.
Employer-made equipment means floating cranes/derricks designed and built by an employer for the employer’s own use.
Encroachment is where any part of the crane, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) breaches a minimum clearance distance that this subpart requires to be maintained from a power line.
Equipment means equipment covered by this subpart.
Equipment criteria means instructions, recommendations, limitations and specifications.
Fall protection equipment means guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems.
Fall restraint system means a fall protection system that prevents the user from falling any distance. The system is comprised of either a body belt or body harness, along with an anchorage, connectors and other necessary equipment. The other components typically include a lanyard, and may also include a lifeline and other devices.
Fall zone means the area (including but not limited to the area directly beneath the load) in which it is reasonably foreseeable that partially or completely suspended materials could fall in the event of an accident.
Flange points are points of contact between rope and drum flange where the rope changes layers.
Floating cranes/derricks means equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation.
For example means “one example, although there are others.”
Free fall (of the load line) means that only the brake is used to regulate the descent of the load line (the drive mechanism is not used to drive the load down faster or retard its lowering).
Free surface effect is the uncontrolled transverse movement of liquids in compartments which reduce a vessel’s transverse stability.
Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.
Hoisting is the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, “hoisting” can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.
Include/including means “including, but not limited to.”
Insulating link/device means an insulating device listed, labeled, or accepted by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.7.
Jib stop (also referred to as a jib backstop), is the same type of device as a boom stop but is for a fixed or luffing jib.
Land crane/derrick is equipment not originally designed by the manufacturer for marine use by permanent attachment to barges, pontoons, vessels, or other means of floatation.
List means the angle of inclination about the longitudinal axis of a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of floatation.
Load refers to the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.
Load moment (or rated capacity) indicator means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing (directly or indirectly) the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load multiplied by radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment’s rated capacity, and indicates to the operator the percentage of capacity at which the equipment is working. Lights, bells, or buzzers may be incorporated as a warning of an approaching overload condition.
Load moment (or rated capacity) limiter means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing (directly or indirectly) the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load multiplied by radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment’s rated capacity, and when the rated capacity is reached, it shuts off power to those equipment functions which can increase the severity of loading on the equipment, e.g., hoisting, telescoping out, or luffing out. Typically, those functions which decrease the severity of loading on the equipment remain operational, e.g., lowering, telescoping in, or luffing in.
Locomotive crane means a crane mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on a railroad track.
Luffing jib limiting device is similar to a boom hoist limiting device, except that it limits the movement of the luffing jib.
Marine hoisted personnel transfer device means a device, such as a “transfer net,” that is designed to protect the employees being hoisted during a marine transfer and to facilitate rapid entry into and exit from the device. Such devices do not include boatswain’s chairs when hoisted by equipment covered by this standard.
Marine worksite means a construction worksite located in, on or above the water.
Mobile crane means a lifting device incorporating a cable suspended latticed boom or hydraulic telescopic boom designed to be moved between operating locations by transport over the road.
Moving point-to-point means the times during which an employee is in the process of going to or from a work station.
Multi-purpose machine means a machine that is designed to be configured in various ways, at least one of which allows it to hoist (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load. For example, a machine that can rotate and can be configured with removable forks/tongs (for use as a forklift) or with a winch pack, jib (with a hook at the end) or jib used in conjunction with a winch. When configured with the forks/tongs, it is not covered by this subpart. When configured with a winch pack, jib (with a hook at the end) or jib used in conjunction with a winch, it is covered by this subpart.
Nationally recognized accrediting agency is an organization that, due to its independence and expertise, is widely recognized as competent to accredit testing organizations. Examples of such accrediting agencies include, but are not limited to, the National Commission for Certifying Agencies and the American National Standards Institute.
Nonconductive means that, because of the nature and condition of the materials used, and the conditions of use (including environmental conditions and condition of the material), the object in question has the property of not becoming energized (that is, it has high dielectric properties offering a high resistance to the passage of current under the conditions of use).
Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in § 1926.1416 (“listed operational aids”).
Operational controls means levers, switches, pedals and other devices for controlling equipment operation.
Operator means a person who is operating the equipment.
Overhead and gantry cranes includes overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, launching gantry cranes, and similar equipment, irrespective of whether it travels on tracks, wheels, or other means.
Paragraph refers to a paragraph in the same section of this subpart that the word “paragraph” is used, unless otherwise specified.
Pendants includes both wire and bar types. Wire type: A fixed length of wire rope with mechanical fittings at both ends for pinning segments of wire rope together. Bar type: Instead of wire rope, a bar is used. Pendants are typically used in a latticed boom crane system to easily change the length of the boom suspension system without completely changing the rope on the drum when the boom length is increased or decreased.
Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combination of these.
Portal crane is a type of crane consisting of a rotating upperstructure, hoist machinery, and boom mounted on top of a structural gantry which may be fixed in one location or have travel capability. The gantry legs or columns usually have portal openings in between to allow passage of traffic beneath the gantry.
Power lines means electric transmission and distribution lines.
Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.
Proximity alarm is a device that provides a warning of proximity to a power line and that has been listed, labeled, or accepted by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.7.
Qualified evaluator (not a third party) means a person employed by the signal person’s employer who has demonstrated that he/she is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.
Qualified evaluator (third party) means an entity that, due to its independence and expertise, has demonstrated that it is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.
Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Qualified rigger is a rigger who meets the criteria for a qualified person.
Range control limit device is a device that can be set by an equipment operator to limit movement of the boom or jib tip to a plane or multiple planes.
Range control warning device is a device that can be set by an equipment operator to warn that the boom or jib tip is at a plane or multiple planes.
Rated capacity means the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration, radii, boom length, and other parameters of use.
Rated capacity indicator: See load moment indicator.
Rated capacity limiter: See load moment limiter.
Repetitive pickup points refer to, when operating on a short cycle operation, the rope being used on a single layer and being spooled repetitively over a short portion of the drum.
Running wire rope means a wire rope that moves over sheaves or drums.
Runway means a firm, level surface designed, prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the crane being used to lift and travel with the crane suspended platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.
Section means a section of this subpart, unless otherwise specified.
Sideboom crane means a track-type or wheel-type tractor having a boom mounted on the side of the tractor, used for lifting, lowering or transporting a load suspended on the load hook. The boom or hook can be lifted or lowered in a vertical direction only.
Special hazard warnings means warnings of site-specific hazards (for example, proximity of power lines).
Stability (flotation device) means the tendency of a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation to return to an upright position after having been inclined by an external force.
Standard Method means the protocol in Appendix A of this subpart for hand signals.
Such as means “such as, but not limited to.”
Superstructure: See Upperworks.
Tagline means a rope (usually fiber) attached to a lifted load for purposes of controlling load spinning and pendular motions or used to stabilize a bucket or magnet during material handling operations.
Tender means an individual responsible for monitoring and communicating with a diver.
Tilt up or tilt down operation means raising/lowering a load from the horizontal to vertical or vertical to horizontal.
Tower crane is a type of lifting structure which utilizes a vertical mast or tower to support a working boom (jib) in an elevated position. Loads are suspended from the working boom. While the working boom may be of the fixed type (horizontal or angled) or have luffing capability, it can always rotate to swing loads, either by rotating on the top of the tower (top slewing) or by the rotation of the tower (bottom slewing). The tower base may be fixed in one location or ballasted and moveable between locations. Mobile cranes that are configured with luffing jib and/or tower attachments are not considered tower cranes under this section.
Travel bogie (tower cranes) is an assembly of two or more axles arranged to permit vertical wheel displacement and equalize the loading on the wheels.
Trim means angle of inclination about the transverse axis of a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of floatation.
Two blocking means a condition in which a component that is uppermost on the hoist line such as the load block, hook block, overhaul ball, or similar component, comes in contact with the boom tip, fixed upper block or similar component. This binds the system and continued application of power can cause failure of the hoist rope or other component.
Unavailable procedures means procedures that are no longer available from the manufacturer, or have never been available, from the manufacturer.
Upperstructure: See Upperworks.
Upperworks means the revolving frame of equipment on which the operating machinery (and many cases the engine) are mounted along with the operator’s cab. The counterweight is typically supported on the rear of the upperstructure and the boom or other front end attachment is mounted on the front.
Up to means “up to and including.”
Wire rope means a flexible rope constructed by laying steel wires into various patterns of multi-wired strands around a core system to produce a helically wound rope.
[75 FR 48137, August 9, 2010]
OSHA 1926.1402 – GROUND CONDITIONS
“Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support the equipment (including slope, compaction, and firmness).
“Supporting materials” means blocking, mats, cribbing, marsh buggies (in marshes/wetlands), or similar supporting materials or devices.
The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the equipment manufacturer’s specifications for adequate support and degree of level of the equipment are met. The requirement for the ground to be drained does not apply to marshes/wetlands.
The controlling entity must:
Ensure that ground preparations necessary to meet the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are provided.
Inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) if those hazards are identified in documents (such as site drawings, as-built drawings, and soil analyses) that are in the possession of the controlling entity (whether at the site or off-site) or the hazards are otherwise known to that controlling entity.
If there is no controlling entity for the project, the requirement in paragraph (c)(1) of this section must be met by the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations needed to meet paragraph (b) of this section.
If the A/D director or the operator determines that ground conditions do not meet the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, that person’s employer must have a discussion with the controlling entity regarding the ground preparations that are needed so that, with the use of suitable supporting materials/devices (if necessary), the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section can be met.
This section does not apply to cranes designed for use on railroad tracks when used on railroad tracks that are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213 and that comply with applicable Federal Railroad Administration requirements.
[75 FR 48140, August 9, 2010]